CentOS 8 Installation on Oracle VM Virtual Box

CentOS 8 Features

Kernel

CENTOS 8 is running on kernel version 4.18 and based on Fedora
28.  Control Group V2 is supported
that manages and distributes system resources in a better way compared to the
previous version. Control group v2 has only single hierarchy
that categorizes processes based on the role of the owner thereby removes the
conflicts policies arising due to multiple hierarchies.

Enhancement in sosreport and kdump is also
done. CENTOS 8 now supports early kdump compared to previous versions
in which kdump was not able to capture crash information early. eBPF
based programs and maps can be reported using sosreport. 

Supported CPU
Architectures are:

  • AMD and Intel 64-bit architectures
  • The 64-bit ARM architecture
  • IBM Power Systems, Little Endian
  • IBM Z

Support for 5-level paging now enables CENTOS 8 to 
supports upto 4 PB of physical memory. Earlier version CENTOS 7 has 4 level
paging that allows addressing space of 256 TiB, same has been increased to 128
PiB and thus increasing physical address space up to 4 Pib

Software Management

CENTOS 8 offers improvement for package management tool yum, which
is now based on DNF  (Dandified Yum) technology that is advanced and has
better performance with support for modular content. RPM version 4.14 is
distributed in  CENTOS 8 and rpm now validates the package content before
starting the installation. Support for packaging files above 4GB in size is
added.

dnf utility
allows to install, upgrade packages.

# dnf install  
# dnf update
# dnf upgrade

dnf provides 

  • Increased performance
  • Support for modular content
  • Well-designed stable API for integration with tooling

Content Distribution

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 has two modes of Content distribution
and will only need two repositories enabled.

  • BaseOS repository – The BaseOS repository provides
    the underlying core OS content in the form of traditional RPM packages.
    BaseOS components have a life cycle identical to that of content in previous
    Red Hat Enterprise Linux releases.
  • AppStream repository – The Application Stream repository provides
    all the applications you might want to run in a given userspace. Other software
    that has special licensing are available on a Supplemental repository.

What
is AppStream?

The AppStream allows you to install additional versions of
software on independent life cycles and keep your operating system
up-to-date while having the right version of an application that suits your use
case. Note that no two streams can be installed at the same time into the
same userspace.

Application Streams are typically named according to the version
of software it distributes e.g. mongodb:3.4 or mongodb:3.6, but
may also use names such as “latest” and
stable” and
latest“.

File Systems and
storage 

XFS file system supports shared copy-on-write data extent functionality
that allows sharing a common set of data block for two or more
files that is Fast and  space efficient. LUKS2 replaces the
legacy LUKS1 format. LUKS2 provides encrypted volumes
that supports auto recovery in case of metadata corruptions.

Stratis is new local storage manager that provides managed file
systems on top of pools of storage that simplifies tasks like Managing
snapshots, expanding file systems on the fly, XFS is default file system used
by stratis. 

Cockpit

CENTOS 8 is having pre-installed cockpit packages on non
minimal installations as well as firewall ports are opened, Package can be
obtained from CENTOS default repositories for minimal installations. Cockpit’s
web interface can be used for managing machines remotely easily.

Cockpit is now compatible with mobile browsers, thus managing
systems using mobile devices is possible now. Cockpit’s page now warns
and  informs about missing updates and subscriptions. Cockpit interface
can also be used to apply Policy-based Decryption rules to disks on the
systems.

Virtual Machines can now be created and  managed using
Cockpit. Another enhancement is that Networking page allows modification of
firewall rules.

Replacement
of  nfsnobody user with nobody

nfsnobody  and nobody user of CENTOS 7
with ID of 65534 and 99 respectively have been merged as single user
nobody with ID 65534 and CENTOS 8 installation no more
creates nfsnobody user.

Databases, webservers,
languages

  • Databases Servers in CENTOS 8: MySQL 8.0, MariaDB 10.3, PostgreSQL 9.6 and PostgreSQL 10, Redis 4
  • Python 3 .6 is distributed on CENTOS 8
  • Ruby 2.5
  • PHP 7.2
  • Perl 5.26
  • CENTOS 8 comes with nginx 1.14 available in the base repository
  • RedisThe redis version available is 4.0
  • Web Servers: httpd 2.Nginx 1.14*
  • OpenLDAP replaced by 369 LDAP Server
  • Varnish Cache 6.0*
  • Git 2.17
  • Maven 3.5
  • Perl 5.26* and 5.24
  • Node.js 10* and 8*
  • Python 3.6* and 2.7*
  • Rust Toolset 1.26*
  • Scala 2.10
  • Go Toolset 1.10*
  • GCC System compiler 8.1
  • .NET Core 2.1*
  • Java 8 and Java 11
  • Pacemaker cluster resource manager 2.0.0. The pcs configuration system fully supports Corosync 3, knet, and node names.
  • glibc libraries based on version 2.28

Desktop 

CENTOS 8  Desktop Environment has been rebased to GNOME 3.28
that include new features like on screen keyboard, extended device support.
Wayland  replaces the X.org of previous CENTOS release and is the default
display server  in CENTOS 8 that offers advantages like improved multi-monitor
support, enhanced UI scaling, 

  • New
    on-screen keyboard
  • New
    GNOME Boxes features
  • Extended
    devices support, most significantly integration for the Thunderbolt 3 interface
  • Improvements
    for GNOME Software, dconf-editor and GNOME Terminal
  • GNOME
    Software utility, which enables you to install and update applications and
    gnome-shell extensions.
  • GNOME
    Display Manager (GDM) use Wayland as their default display server instead of
    the X.org server

Features
of Wayland display server

  • Stronger
    security model
  • Improved
    multi-monitor handling
  • Improved
    user interface (UI) scaling
  • The
    desktop can control window handling directly.

Networking

iptables has been replaced with nftables as default
packet filtering framework which is the
successor to  iptables, arptables,
and ebtables tool.

nftables has several advantages like it offers single framework
for ipv4 and ipv6 protocols packet filtering. Another utility nftrace is
provided that helps in debugging and tracing in the ruleset.

TCP Networking Stack version 4.16 is distributed on CENTOS 8 that
provides more stability and better performance.

By Default, firewalld uses nftables 

Virtualization

Bunch of new features are added like KVM supports 5-level paging,
additional crash information in case KVM guest crashes, Ceph storage is now
supported as well on KVM

CENTOS 8 is distributed with qemu–kvm 2.12 with new
features like support for  Q35 guest machine type, UEFI guest
boot, vCPU hot plug/unplug, Guest I/O threading.

Security

The openssh package have been upgraded to version 7.8p1
that removes support for ssh version 1 protocol, Enhancement
in rsyslog is also there with upgraded rsylog version
8.37.0 

Containers without
daemons

CENTOS 8 comes with Podman and buildah aka CRI-O that is
alternative to dockers and can be used to manage containers.

September 27, 2019

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